In my previous post, I wrote a go application that displays the GPS location of any IP address. Here in this post, I’ll explain how to deploy the same in minikube.


  • understanding of kubernetes components (pods, deployment, etc.)
  • minikube installed in your laptop

Kubernetes tutorial

If you are new to kubernetes and want to learn, I recommend this youtube playlist.


Minikube is a tool that makes it easy to run Kubernetes locally. Minikube runs a single-node Kubernetes cluster inside a Virtual Machine (VM) on your laptop for users looking to try out Kubernetes or develop with it day-to-day.

if you don’t have minikube installed in your laptop, you can do it by following the instructions here.

Desired Deployment State

  • 2 instances of our web application.
  • a load balancer that balances the load on our two web application instances.
  • a redis cluster with a master-slave replication.
desired deployment state

I’m going to list down 7 steps I did to get to the above shown desired state. I hope you can replicate what I did very easily in your own minikube environment.

Step 1: start minikube

minikube start

you should receive an output like this

MacBook-Pro-2:Desktop jeshocarmel$ minikube start
😄  minikube v1.12.3 on Darwin 10.14.3
✨  Using the hyperkit driver based on existing profile
👍  Starting control plane node minikube in cluster minikube
🏃  Updating the running hyperkit "minikube" VM ...
🐳  Preparing Kubernetes v1.18.3 on Docker 19.03.12 ...
🔎  Verifying Kubernetes components...
🌟  Enabled addons: default-storageclass, storage-provisioner
🏄  Done! kubectl is now configured to use "minikube"

To ensure minikube has started successfully, run the command below

minikube status

and you should receive an output like this.

MacBook-Pro-2:Desktop jeshocarmel$ minikube status
type: Control Plane
host: Running
kubelet: Running
apiserver: Running
kubeconfig: Configured

Before we proceed further, clone the repo (if you don’t have it already) and navigate to the project folder in command line / terminal.

Step 2: create secrets

A Secret is an object that contains a small amount of sensitive data such as a password, a token, or a key. To use a secret, a Pod needs to reference the secret.

We need two secrets for our application setup.

  1. The apikey for
  2. A password for our redis cluster.

    The password will be used by the redis-cluster when it is setup and it will also be needed in the web app to authenticate with the redis host

First, use a base64 encoding tool to convert your apikey and the intended redis password for your redis cluster to a base64 representation. Here’s an example using the commonly available base64 program:

echo -n 'hello world' | base64

Do the base64 encoding for your apikey and your intended password.

echo -n '2c8dceb807df3f5de79cec85d7255998' | base64 # api key from
echo -n 'sOmE_sEcUrE_pAsS' | base64 # redis password

Create a app-secret.yaml file as below.

Replace the value for apikey and redis-password with the your base64 encoded values. Run the command below to create the secrets in your kubernetes cluster.

kubectl apply -f app-secret.yaml

You should get an output like this.

MacBook-Pro-2:app jeshocarmel$ kubectl apply -f app-secret.yaml 
secret/app-secret created

Step 3: create a redis cluster

To create my redis cluster, I used Helm. Helm is a tool that streamlines installing and managing Kubernetes applications. Think of it like Apt/Yum/Homebrew for K8S. To know more about Helm and Helm charts, I recommend this video.

Run the below command to add the bitnami chart to your helm repo.

 helm repo add bitnami

Create a redis cluster with a single command using helm

 helm install my-release bitnami/redis --values minikube_files/values-minikube.yml

The above command creates a redis cluster named ‘my-release’ with configuration parameters mentioned in the file values-minikube.yml.

Run the below command to verify redis-cluster has started successfully.

kubectl get all

You should get an output as below.

MacBook-Pro-2:app jeshocarmel$ kubectl get all
NAME                            READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
pod/my-release-redis-master-0   2/2     Running   0          2m6s
pod/my-release-redis-slave-0    2/2     Running   0          2m6s

NAME                                TYPE        CLUSTER-IP      EXTERNAL-IP   PORT(S)    AGE
service/kubernetes                  ClusterIP       <none>        443/TCP    3m12s
service/my-release-redis-headless   ClusterIP   None            <none>        6379/TCP   2m6s
service/my-release-redis-master     ClusterIP    <none>        6379/TCP   2m6s
service/my-release-redis-metrics    ClusterIP   <none>        9121/TCP   2m6s
service/my-release-redis-slave      ClusterIP     <none>        6379/TCP   2m6s

NAME                                       READY   AGE
statefulset.apps/my-release-redis-master   1/1     2m6s
statefulset.apps/my-release-redis-slave    1/1     2m6s

Kindly wait for a while if Pods are shown as ‘ContainerCreating’

Any pod in the kubernetes cluster can connect to the redis cluster we just created by mentioning the service ‘service/my-release-redis-master’

configuration file explained

The recommended production configuration file by bitnami is available here. I’ve customized this file to accommodate the redis cluster on minikube. The changes that I made are listed here with comments.

  slaveCount: 1 # downgraded slaveCount from '3' to '1'

    enabled: false # change networkPolicy enabled to 'false' from 'true'. This enables the app to discover the cluster easily.
    allowExternal: true # changed networkPolicy allowExternal from 'false' to 'true'. 

    existingSecret: app-secret # mentioned app-secret to retrieve the redis-password we had initially created in step 2
    existingSecretPasswordKey: redis-password # mentioned the key which hold the base64 encoded hash of the password.

    enabled: false # changed persistence enabled to false. minikube doesn't support persistence for redis. 

Step 4: create configmap

A ConfigMap is an API object used to store non-confidential data in key-value pairs. Pods can consume ConfigMaps as environment variables.

We need a configmap now to mention our redis host to the pods that are going to deploy the app.

Run the below command to create the configmap.

  kubectl apply -f app-configmap.yaml

You should get an output like this.

  MacBook-Pro-2:app jeshocarmel$ kubectl apply -f app-configmap.yaml 
  configmap/app-configmap created

Step 5: create deployment and service

Now, create a file app-deployment.yaml and copy the contents from below. The comments on each line mention their intent.

Run the below command to create the deployment and service.

  kubectl apply -f app-deployment.yaml

You should get an output like this

  MacBook-Pro-2:app jeshocarmel$ kubectl apply -f app-deployment.yaml 
  deployment.apps/go-app created
  service/go-app-service created

This step has created a deployment with 2 pods that run the app and a service on top of it to redirect incoming requests to the 2 pods.

Step 6: check your cluster

Check your cluster by running kubectl get all. I’ve copied my output here for your reference.

MacBook-Pro-2:app jeshocarmel$ kubectl get all
NAME                            READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
pod/go-app-75d844c66b-ds8h9     1/1     Running   0          5m24s
pod/go-app-75d844c66b-z2279     1/1     Running   0          5m24s
pod/my-release-redis-master-0   2/2     Running   0          6m58s
pod/my-release-redis-slave-0    2/2     Running   0          6m58s

NAME                                TYPE        CLUSTER-IP       EXTERNAL-IP   PORT(S)        AGE
service/go-app-service              NodePort    <none>        80:30000/TCP   5m24s
service/kubernetes                  ClusterIP        <none>        443/TCP        7m49s
service/my-release-redis-headless   ClusterIP   None             <none>        6379/TCP       6m58s
service/my-release-redis-master     ClusterIP     <none>        6379/TCP       6m58s
service/my-release-redis-metrics    ClusterIP    <none>        9121/TCP       6m58s
service/my-release-redis-slave      ClusterIP   <none>        6379/TCP       6m58s

NAME                     READY   UP-TO-DATE   AVAILABLE   AGE
deployment.apps/go-app   2/2     2            2           5m24s

NAME                                DESIRED   CURRENT   READY   AGE
replicaset.apps/go-app-75d844c66b   2         2         2       5m24s

NAME                                       READY   AGE
statefulset.apps/my-release-redis-master   1/1     6m58s
statefulset.apps/my-release-redis-slave    1/1     6m58s

Kindly wait for a while until the pods are shown as ‘running’

Step 7: expose service

The service we created in step 5 is a NodePort service. A NodePort service is the most primitive way to get external traffic directly to your service. If you are interested to learn more about different services available in kubernetes, I recommend this article.

It’s time now to expose our service. Run the below command.

  minikube service go-app-service

I’ve copied my output below. You can observe that the port 30000 is the same port we mentioned for NodePort in step 5.

  MacBook-Pro-2:app jeshocarmel$ minikube service go-app-service
| NAMESPACE |      NAME      | TARGET PORT |            URL             |
| default   | go-app-service | http/80     | |
🎉  Opening service default/go-app-service in default browser...

Copy the URL and paste in your browser. You should be able to see the app now.

app loaded on my browser
illustration of how a NodePort works (reference)


To summarize, this article demonstrates how to create the following in a minikube kubernetes cluster.

  • secrets
  • configmap
  • a redis cluster using helm
  • an app deployment
  • a service that exposes the app

As an icing on the top, lets see how to scale our app deployment to 5 replicas.

kubectl scale --replicas 5 deployment/go-app
MacBook-Pro-2:app jeshocarmel$ kubectl scale --replicas 5 deployment/go-app
deployment.apps/go-app scaled

Checking pods after scaling.

MacBook-Pro-2:app jeshocarmel$ kubectl get pods
NAME                        READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
go-app-69754f67b8-9w7s8     1/1     Running   0          66s
go-app-69754f67b8-b892x     1/1     Running   0          66s
go-app-69754f67b8-hqv2q     1/1     Running   0          42m
go-app-69754f67b8-lrm2r     1/1     Running   0          66s
go-app-69754f67b8-w8xb6     1/1     Running   0          42m
my-release-redis-master-0   2/2     Running   0          78m
my-release-redis-slave-0    2/2     Running   0          78m

The app has been scaled from 2 replicas to 5 replicase in a single command. That’s as simple as it gets. Thanks for your time. Hope you learnt something.

Next steps

In the next post, I’ll write on how to deploy this application in a cloud environment with Linode Kubernetes Engine (LKE). See ya.